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八大词性   句子的基本观念   基本句型   助动词    主动被动   时 态

动词补语(不定词与动名词)   代名词的格、反身代词  不定代名词  that-those, there-it, this-which

代名词与先行词的一致、代名词的累赘   修饰语(形容词)    修饰语(副词)    分词   

介系词    常考词组     假设语气    否定用字     倒装   比较   对等连接词

从属连接词  独立连接词  名词子句  形容词子句  副词子句  平行、一致、累赘用字

 


 

 

 

假設語氣


If所引導的假設語氣


If所引導的假設語氣有下列幾種句型:

1. 表達跟未來事實相反:

should   + 原形動詞,  S + should 
If +S +  were to would
 + 原形動詞 could
might


例:1. If he should come, I would tell the truth.


2. If the sun were to rise in the west, I would marry you.


3. If photosynthesis(光合作用) were to stop, all living things would disappear.


註:If+ S+ should+原形動詞是表達“一般情況不太可能”,而If+ S+ were to+原形動詞是表達“絕對與事實真理相反”。


2. 表達跟現在事實相反:

S + should 
If +S +  were, would   + 原形動詞
過去式, could
might


例:1. If I were you, I might leave at once.


2. I would buy that house if I had enough money.


3. 表達與過去事實相反:

S + should 
If +S +  had +p.p., would   + have + p.p.
could
might


例:1. If you had come to the party, you might have met Jane.


2. He might have come if it had not rained.


4. 關於假設語氣應注意事項:
(a) 要利用已知動詞去判斷未知動詞,請思考下列空格的動詞結構
If+ S+ were to+原形動詞,S+____.
S+ might+ have+ p.p.+ if+ ____.


(b) 假設語氣的助動詞一律用過去式,be動詞一律用were。


(c) 假設語氣If子句可以改為倒裝結構,即(1)去掉if,(2)將should, were或had移至主詞前面。


例:1. If he should come, I would tell the truth.
= Should he come, I would tell the truth.


2. If the sun were to rise in the west, I would marry you.
= Were the sun to rise in the west, I would marry you.


3. If I were you, I might leave at once.
= Were I you, I might leave at once.


4. You might have met Jane if you had come to the party.
= You might have met Jane had you come to the party.


請務必要掌握倒裝結構,才能判斷是與未來、現在、或過去事實相反。

(d) 與過去事實相反的事若影響到現在,則主要子句動詞用would/should/could/might +原形之
結構,這種情況主要子句會有現在的時間副詞出現。


例:1. If they had built more houses ten years ago, the housing problem would not be so serious now.

 


其它假設語氣句型


除If之外,其它wish, as if, without等亦可引導假設語氣的結構。


1. wish所引導的假設語氣:



(a) 表達與未來事實相反:S+ with+ (that)+ S+ would/should/could/might+原形動詞


例:I wish I could go to the party tomorrow.



(b) 表達與現在事實相反:S+ wish+ (that)+ S+were/過去式


例:1. I wish I were a millionaire.


2. I wish I had enough money.


(c) 表達與過去事實相反:S+ wish+ (that)+ S+ had+ p.p.


例:I wish I had known he was in hospital.


註:上列結構that可以省略;此外, 假設語氣的be動詞一律用were。


2. as if (= as though, 似乎,好像):as if所引導的假設語氣結構與上述wish的結構一樣。



(a) 表達與未來事實相反:S+ V+ as if+ S+ would/should/could/might +原形



例:He looks as if he would do it.


(b) 表達與現在事實相反:S+ V+ as if+ S+ were/過去式


例:1. He looks as if he were a rich man.


2. He looks as if he liked it.


(c) 表達與過去事實相反:S+ V+ as if+ S+ had+ p.p.


例:He talked as if he had read that book.


3. with表示“若有”,without表示“若無”,亦是引導假設語氣的結構。


(a) 表達與未來或與現在事實相反:With/Without+ NP, S+ would/should/could/might +have+ p.p.


例:With your help, I might succeed now.



(b) 表達與過去事實相反:With/Without+ NP, S+would/should/ could/might +have+ p.p.


例:Without your help, I could have failed then.
註:事實上,with+ NP與without+ NP語意上等於第一節If子句的部份,故主要子句所用的動詞是一樣的。


4. 表達命令要求、堅持、建議勸告等動詞所引導的假設語氣:這類動詞常考者包括order, command, demand, ask, require(命令要求);insist, maintain(堅持);suggest, propose, recommend, advise(建議勸告)。


(a) S+ V+ (that)+ S+ (should)+原形動詞:that與should皆可省略,若省略should,則後面動詞一律用原形。


例:1. I insisted (that) he (should) come back early.


2. My sister demanded (that) he (should) apologize (道歉)。


3. Jane suggested that I (should) buy a car.


(b) It be+ p.p.+ that+ S+ (should)+原形動詞


例:1. It was required that he (should) finish his work on time.


2. It is recommended that we (should) do more exercise.


(c) It be+ adj+ that+ S+ (should)+原形:這種結構的形容詞(adj)亦是表達命令要求、堅持、建議勸告的語氣,常考的包括necessary, important, imperative, essential, insistent, advisable等。


例:1. It is necessary that he (should) make an immediate decision.


2. It is advisable that we (should) do exercise at least twice a week.


5. It+ be (about或high) +time(that)+S+過去式:表達“該是‥的時候了”。


例:1. It is time that you worked hard.


2. It is about time you went to bed.


 

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