八大词性 句子的基本观念 基本句型 助动词 主动被动 时 态
动词补语(不定词与动名词) 代名词的格、反身代词 不定代名词 that-those, there-it, this-which
代名词与先行词的一致、代名词的累赘 修饰语(形容词) 修饰语(副词) 分词
介系词 常考词组 假设语气 否定用字 倒装 比较 对等连接词
从属连接词 独立连接词 名词子句 形容词子句 副词子句 平行、一致、累赘用字
(b) 若N+____+S+ VP，則空格用受格。
例：1. People who lived three miles away heard the noise.
2. Mr. Wilson is a scholar whom we all admire. (whom當admire之受詞)
3. The house which he lived in was very big. (which當in之受詞)
4. I have just met the man whose son is a reporter.
例：1. Did you see the man who broke the window?
2. The meeting, which took place in the park, was attended by hundreds of people.
註：在“N+ who (which, that)+ VP”的結構中，動詞(V)的單複數要與先行詞一致。
例：1. These apple trees which (that) were planted ten years ago have borne a lot of fruit.
2. I talked to the man who is a lawyer.
1. I bought the book that author was a famous statesman(政治家). (將that改為whose)
2. My uncle, that buys a new car every year lives in Chicago.
改為→My uncle that buys a new car every year, lives in Chicago.
或→My uncle, who buys a new car every year, lives in Chicago.
3. The book in that he is interested was written by Mark Twain.
改為→The book that he is interested in was written by Mark Twain.
或→The book in which he is interested was written by Mark Twain.
4. 受格關係代名詞(whom, which)若當介系詞之受詞，則介系詞可移至whom或which前面。
例：1. The house, which John lives in, is very big.
→The house, in which John lives, is very big.
→The house, where John lives, is very big. (in which指“地方”=where)
2. I talked to the man whom my brother worked with.
→I talked to the man with whom my brother worked.
例：1. The policeman and who caught him received a reward. (關係代名詞本身即為連接詞，故前不能再加連接詞，and要去掉)
2. The teacher who is from the United States. (who應去掉，否則The teacher便沒動詞)
1. The girl who is sitting next to him is Mary.
→The girl sitting next to him is Mary. (現在分詞片語)
2. Dr. Lin, Who is the president of the university, will give a speech tonight.
→Dr. Lin, the president of the university, will give a speech tonight. (名詞片語)
3. The house which is on top of the mountain belongs to my uncle.
→The house on top of the mountain belongs to my uncle. (介系詞片語)
4. The writer used a writing style which was different from the traditional one.
→The writer used a writing style different from the traditional one. (形容詞片語)
5. The psychologists who study the nature of sleep have made important discoveries.
→The psychologists studying the nature of sleep have made important discoveries. (現在分詞片語)
6. They live in a house that was built hundreds of years ago.
→They live in a house built hundreds of years ago. (過去分詞片語)
7. The ideas which are presented in that book are interesting.
→The ideas presented in that book are interesting. (過去分詞片語)
(b) 受格關係代名詞之簡化：受格關係代名詞(whom, which)皆可簡化，但若該子句前後標逗號則不能簡化。
例：1. The man (whom) I met yesterday is my old friend. (whom可省略)
2. The man, whom I met yesterday, is my old friend. (whom不可省略)
例：1. He is interested in whatever is said. (當in之受詞)
2. You may give the prize to whomever you like. (當to之受詞)
3. Whoever breaks the law should be punished. (當主詞)