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八大词性   句子的基本观念   基本句型   助动词    主动被动   时 态

动词补语(不定词与动名词)   代名词的格、反身代词  不定代名词  that-those, there-it, this-which

代名词与先行词的一致、代名词的累赘   修饰语(形容词)    修饰语(副词)    分词   

介系词    常考词组     假设语气    否定用字     倒装   比较   对等连接词

从属连接词  独立连接词  名词子句  形容词子句  副词子句  平行、一致、累赘用字

 


 

 

從屬子句

副詞子句的簡化


引導副詞子句且可以進行簡化之連接詞為

(a)表“雖然”:although, though, while, even if, even though;

(b)表“時間”:when, while;

(c)表“條件”:if, unless;

(d)表“因為”:because等。

 

我們以although為例來說明這類副詞子句的簡化過程:
步驟(一):若副詞子句的主詞與主要子句的主詞相等,則將副詞子句的主詞去掉,若不相等則不能省略,連接詞則可省略亦可保留。


步驟(二):若動詞為be動詞,則將be動詞省略;若為其它動詞則改為分詞,主動用現在分詞,被動用過去分詞;若動詞為完成式,則改為having+ p.p.


請思考下列句子的簡化:
1. If weather permits, we will go on a picnic.
→Weather permitting, we will go on a picnic. (主詞不相等,故weather要保留)


2. While I understand what you say, I can not agree with you.
→While understanding what you say, I can not agree with you. (現在分詞)


3. Although he is rich and powerful, he is not happy.
→Although rich and powerful, he is not happy. (形容詞片語)


4. While he was a professor in Taiwan University, he was devoted to the study of biology.
→While a professor in Taiwan University, he was devoted to the study of biology. (名詞片語,此名詞片語語意要等於主詞)


5. When he was in New York, he enjoyed going to the museum once a week.
→When in New York, he enjoyed going to the museum once a week. (介系詞片語)


6. A bear will not attack people unless it is provoked(被激怒).
→A bear will not attack people unless provoked. (過去分詞片語)


連接詞若保留有個好處,即語意上會更為明確,但because所引導的子句若簡化則because一定要省略。


例:1. Because Jack has lived here all his life, he knows the city well.
→Having lived here all his life, he knows the city well.


2. Because he was ill, he stayed in bed.
→Being ill, he stayed in bed.


(在“Because+ S+ be+ Adj”的簡化式中,be動詞可改為being)



結構思考:


1. ____, S+ VP. 在這種情況下,空格內可能用的結構為(a)副詞子句,(b)名詞片語(語意上要等於主要子句的主詞),(c)介系詞片語,(d)分詞(主動用現在分詞,被動用過去詞)。此外,若表達“目的”,則用不定詞片語。


2.

Although
Though
While
Even if     +____, S+ VP.
Even though
When
If
Unless


空格原為“S+ VP”之子句,經簡化後可成為(a)介系詞片語,(b)分詞片語,(c)名詞片語(語意上要等於主詞)


3.

Despite +名詞片語,S+ VP.
In spite of
In     +名詞片語,S+ VP.
During


despite與in spite of表達“雖然”,in與during表達“當…”,皆介系詞,後面接的名詞片語在語意上不等於主詞。


例:1. Despite his illness, he went to the meeting. (illness不等於he)


2. During his visit to New York, my uncle spent most of his time in museums. (visit不等於my uncle)


4.

Ving
p.p. , S+ VP


判斷空格內的分詞,這時便要應用到主動、被動的觀念:

(a)若分詞後面有名詞片語(主要是由冠詞、所有格、數目字所引導的結構),則表達主動,要用現在分詞;

(b)若分詞後面by,則強烈表達被動,要用過去分詞;

(c)若分詞後面沒有NP,也沒有by,則拉分詞與主要子句主詞的關係,由語意上來判斷。


例:1. Inspired by his father, John decided to be a doctor.


2. Hearing the bell ring, we departed hastily.


3. Feeling tired, you can take a rest. (拉you與feel之關係)


4. Working in the garden, he saw a snake. (拉he與work之關係)


5.

Ving , S+ VP.
To+原形動詞


若語意表達動作正在進行則用Ving,若表達目的則用不定詞。


例:1. Walking down the street, I met John.


2. To pass the exam, he studied hard.

 

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