八大词性 句子的基本观念 基本句型 助动词 主动被动 时 态
动词补语(不定词与动名词) 代名词的格、反身代词 不定代名词 that-those, there-it, this-which
代名词与先行词的一致、代名词的累赘 修饰语(形容词) 修饰语(副词) 分词
介系词 常考词组 假设语气 否定用字 倒装 比较 对等连接词
从属连接词 独立连接词 名词子句 形容词子句 副词子句 平行、一致、累赘用字
(a)表“雖然”：although, though, while, even if, even though；
1. If weather permits, we will go on a picnic.
→Weather permitting, we will go on a picnic. (主詞不相等，故weather要保留)
2. While I understand what you say, I can not agree with you.
→While understanding what you say, I can not agree with you. (現在分詞)
3. Although he is rich and powerful, he is not happy.
→Although rich and powerful, he is not happy. (形容詞片語)
4. While he was a professor in Taiwan University, he was devoted to the study of biology.
→While a professor in Taiwan University, he was devoted to the study of biology. (名詞片語，此名詞片語語意要等於主詞)
5. When he was in New York, he enjoyed going to the museum once a week.
→When in New York, he enjoyed going to the museum once a week. (介系詞片語)
6. A bear will not attack people unless it is provoked(被激怒).
→A bear will not attack people unless provoked. (過去分詞片語)
例：1. Because Jack has lived here all his life, he knows the city well.
→Having lived here all his life, he knows the city well.
2. Because he was ill, he stayed in bed.
→Being ill, he stayed in bed.
(在“Because+ S+ be+ Adj”的簡化式中，be動詞可改為being)
1. ____, S+ VP. 在這種情況下，空格內可能用的結構為(a)副詞子句，(b)名詞片語(語意上要等於主要子句的主詞)，(c)介系詞片語，(d)分詞(主動用現在分詞，被動用過去詞)。此外，若表達“目的”，則用不定詞片語。
Even if +____, S+ VP.
Despite +名詞片語，S+ VP.
In spite of
In +名詞片語，S+ VP.
despite與in spite of表達“雖然”，in與during表達“當…”，皆介系詞，後面接的名詞片語在語意上不等於主詞。
例：1. Despite his illness, he went to the meeting. (illness不等於he)
2. During his visit to New York, my uncle spent most of his time in museums. (visit不等於my uncle)
p.p. , S+ VP
例：1. Inspired by his father, John decided to be a doctor.
2. Hearing the bell ring, we departed hastily.
3. Feeling tired, you can take a rest. (拉you與feel之關係)
4. Working in the garden, he saw a snake. (拉he與work之關係)
Ving , S+ VP.
例：1. Walking down the street, I met John.
2. To pass the exam, he studied hard.