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八大词性   句子的基本观念   基本句型   助动词    主动被动   时 态

动词补语(不定词与动名词)   代名词的格、反身代词  不定代名词  that-those, there-it, this-which

代名词与先行词的一致、代名词的累赘   修饰语(形容词)    修饰语(副词)    分词   

介系词    常考词组     假设语气    否定用字     倒装   比较   对等连接词

从属连接词  独立连接词  名词子句  形容词子句  副词子句  平行、一致、累赘用字

 


 

 

 

平行、一致、累贅用字


平行


當對等連接詞(and, or, but, yet, both…and…, not only…, but also…, neither…nor…, either…or…, not…but…)出現時,前後所使用的結構要平行對稱。一般而言,平行的可歸納為下列幾種情況:


1. 詞類的平行:這是最基本,最直接的平行。


例:1. Jane is young, enthusiastic and intelligent. (形容詞平行)


2. He is good at playing both the piano and the guitar. (名詞平行)


3. Not only did he buy me a watch but he also bought me a bike. (子句平行,not only所引導的句子要倒裝)


4. I would rather swim than play basketball. (原形動詞平行)


5. He neither drinks nor smokes. (動詞平行)


2. 語意上的平行:名詞與名詞平行時,要特別注意到語意上是否合乎邏輯。下列句子雖然詞類上平行,但語意上卻未平行。


例:1. Nowadays students are more interested in business administration, international trade, and engineer. (應將engineer改為engineering)


2. Floriculture(園藝) is an art, business and scientist. (應將scientist改為science)


3. 單複數,時態上的平行


例:1. He neither knows nor cares what happened. (平行現在式)


2. From the ship, they have found a lot of objects such as coins, bottles and jewelry. (平行名詞帄複數,jewelry為不可數,故用單數)


一致


一致可歸納為下列幾種情況:
1. 代名詞與先行詞的一致:代名詞與先行詞在人稱、平複數及性別上要一致。


請思考下列句子藍色代名詞與先行詞是否一致:
1. Dolphins (海豚) are warm-blooded (暖血的);that is, its body temperature always stays the same. (將its改為their,先行詞為dolphins)
2. Everyone should try your best to finish the work. (先行詞為everyone,改為his)


2. 主詞與動詞的一致:主詞與動詞在單複數上要一致。


例:1. Many a ship has (=Many ships have) sunk during the storm.


2. The United Nations is an international organization. (專有名詞指單數)


3. Mathematics gives me so much trouble. (學科指單數)


4. One of my dogs was lost last weekend. (主詞為One)


5. There is little equipment in that hospital.
There are some students in the classroom.
There has been little change since he moved here. (在“There+ be+ NP”的結構中,動詞的單複數由後面名詞片語(NP)決定)


6. To tell lies is a bad habit.
Making right choices demands wisdom and courage. (不定詞或動名詞片語指整個動作,為單數觀念)


7. How they will do it is not important.
Where he lived is still a mystery. (名詞子句指整件事情,亦為單數觀念)


8. One-third of the students were absent.
All of my money was stolen.
More than ten percent of the people in the world suffer from hunger.


3. 時態的一致:動詞時態要與時間副詞一致,類似last week, last year, four years ago, in 1970等等皆為重要的時間副詞。若沒有時間副詞,則可能藉另外一個動詞來判斷。而表達事實真理則用現在簡單式。


例:1. In 1845, all towns in the country were required to have school.


2. He passed away (過世) at the age of sixty.


3. When I dropped the cup, the coffee spilled (灑) on my lap (大腿).


4. We have known each other since we were kids.


5. Spiders have eight legs. (表事實)


6. fire is hot and ice is cold. (表事實)


4. 補語與先行詞的一致:若用名詞片語(NP)當補語,則此NP在語意上要等於先行詞。結構為(a)S+ be+ NP. (當主詞補語),(b)S+ V (如consider, make)+O+ NP. (當受詞補語),(c)NP, S+ VP. (當主詞同位語)


請修改下列各句藍色部份:
1. The book is interest and use. (interest與use不等於book,故改為interesting與useful)


2. John Dewey is one of the greatest educations in the twentieth century. (education不等於John Dewey,故改為educators)


3. The story made me sadness. (sadness不等於me,故改為sad)


4. A tall man with blue eyes, John Smith is known for his poems. (本句成立,man等於John Smith)

 


累贅


累贅可分為語意上的累贅與結構上的累贅。
1. 語意上的累贅:相同意思的兩個字或片語擺在一貣會形成語意的累贅。


例:1. The earth’s climate remained the same and unchanged for millions of years
during the Jurassic period.


2. Further information remains unclear, but shortly very soon they will know
the truth.


第一題the same=unchanged,故unchanged應去掉。第二題shortly=very soon,故shortly應去掉。


2. 結構上的累贅:常出現的情況如下:


(一) 主詞的累贅:一個句子若已經有名詞當主詞則不需再加代名詞。


下列各句皆應將劃線的代名詞去掉:
1. Designing a bridge it requires skill and talent. (主詞為Designing a bridge)


2. Many people who live in Taipei they are troubled by traffic problems. (主詞為Many people)


(二) 受詞的累贅:動詞或介系詞若已經有受詞則不需再加代名詞。


下列各句皆需將劃線的代名詞去掉:
1. The house which I bought it last year was very expensive. (bought之受詞為which)


2. He told us a lot of stories which we all liked them very much. (liked之詞為which)


3. The man whom you met him yesterday is a famous actor. (met之受詞為whom)


4. He denied (否認) it that he stole the money. (denied之受詞為that子句)


5. They tried their best to carry it out their plan. (carry out之受詞為their plan,故it要去掉)


(三) 連接詞的累贅:中文可以說“雖然…,但是…”,“因為…,所以…”,“除非…,不然…”,但英文卻不能說“Although…, but…”,“Because…,so…”,“Unless…,or…”。


下列各句皆要去掉其中一個連接詞:
1. Although my car is very old, but it still runs well.


2. Because I had a headache, so I went to bed early.


3. Unless you study harder, or you will never pass the exam.


(四) 比較結構的累贅:可以加er的形容詞或副詞前面不能再加more,可以加est的形容詞或副詞前面不能再加most,不然會形成累贅。


請訂正以下各句:
1. Mount Everest is the most highest mountain in the world. (將most去掉)


2. Jean runs more faster than John. (將more去掉)


(五) 雙重否定所造成的累贅


請訂正下列各句:
1. I can not hardly tolerate it. (去掉其中之一)


2. Don’t go out without no money. (將no改為any)


3. I can’t swim neither. (將neither改為either)

 

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