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八大词性   句子的基本观念   基本句型   助动词    主动被动   时 态

动词补语(不定词与动名词)   代名词的格、反身代词  不定代名词  that-those, there-it, this-which

代名词与先行词的一致、代名词的累赘   修饰语(形容词)    修饰语(副词)    分词   

介系词    常考词组     假设语气    否定用字     倒装   比较   对等连接词

从属连接词  独立连接词  名词子句  形容词子句  副词子句  平行、一致、累赘用字

 


動詞補語(不定詞與動名詞)


有些動詞後面接不定詞,有些則接動名詞,務必要確實掌握。
1. V+ Ving:這類動詞常考的包括avoid(逃避),mind(在乎),finish, enjoy, resent(憤怒),risk(冒隩),suggest(建議),postpone(延期),consider(考慮),keep(持續),practice(練習),be busy(忙於),be worth(值得)。


例:1. Can I borrow that book when you finish.


2. I am considering changing my job.


3. Young boys enjoy playing baseball.


4. They are busy preparing for the examination.


2. V+ to+原形動詞:這類動詞通常表達目的、期望、要求、能力、詴圖等意思,常考的包括wish, expect(期望),intend(欲),want, tend(債向),manage(設法),plan(計畫),demand(要求),request(要求),decide(決定),attempt(詴圖),afford(能夠),fail(不能、無法),seem, appear(似乎)等等。


例:1. We decide to go at once.


2. Janet tends to get angry if you disagree with her.


3. He managed to open the door.


4. My brother attempted to get up as early as possible.


3. V1+ O+ V2:動詞後面若有受詞,則V2可能用原形動詞、不定詞、動名詞,或過去分詞,請看下列分析:


a) V+ O+不定詞:此類動詞通常是表達命令要求、期望、使能夠、建議、允許,如ask, order, demand, require(要求),wish, expect, force(強迫),allow, permit(允許),tell, encourage(鼓勵),persuade(說服),enable(使能夠),invite, cause(造成),advis(勸告),warn(警告)等等。


例:1. We invited him to have dinner with us.


2. Her father encourages her to become a doctor.


3. The microscope(顯微鏡) enables us to see small things.


請注意,不定詞若改為否定,直接在to前面加not或never。


例:1. The teacher warned him not to be late again.


2. My father told me not to go swimming alone.


b) have+ O+原形動詞或過去分詞:此種結構have表達命令的意思,若受詞為人則用原形,受詞為物則用過去分詞。


例:1. Please have someone carry these things to my house.


2. Please have these things carried to my house.


c) make, let+ O+原形動詞


例:1. Let him do what he likes.


2. The extra cargo(過多的貨物) made the ship sink.


請注意,若受詞表達被動的意思,則使用“make+ O+過去分詞”之結構。


例:1. He tried to make his ideas understood.


d) 知覺動詞watch (see, feel, hear, notice, observe) +O+動名詞或原形動詞,但若表達被動則用過去分詞。


例:1. She felt her heart beating faster and faster.


2. I saw something move behind the trees.


3. Have you ever heard a pop song(流行歌) sung in Japanese.


e) spend+ time or money+動名詞


例:1. He has spent half of his life writing this book.


f) Keep+ O+動名詞(表示動作持續進行)讓某人或某物繼續‥


例:1. I am sorry to have kept you waiting.


keep+ O+不定詞(表示目的)保有某物為了‥‥


例:1. He kept a large amount of money to buy a house.


g) help+ O+(to)+原形:help是較特殊的動詞,受詞後面的動詞可用不定詞或原形動詞。


例:1. The neighbors helped us (to) move the piano.


註:can’t help+動名詞 = can’t but+原形動詞(不得不)


例:1. I couldn’t help crying. (= I couldn’t but cry. )


4. go+ Ving:表達“去做某種活動”,如go shopping, go swimming, go skiing(去滑雪),go mountain climbing, go fishing, go hiking(去遠足),go boating(去划船),go skating(去溜冰),go birdwatching(去賞鳥)等等。


5. Stop+ Ving:表達“停正做‥”。


Stop+不定詞:表達“放下工作開始做某事”。


例:1. He stopped watching TV because he had a lot of work to do.


2. After three hours’ work, he stopped to take a break.


6. remember (forget)+Ving:表達“想貣(忘記)已經做了‥”。


remember (forget)+不定詞:表達“想貣(忘記)要去做‥”。


例:1. Don’t forget to turn off the gas before going out.


2. I remember watering (澆水) the plants while I was away. (表示已澆了)。


3. Please remember to water the plants while I am away. (表示還未澆)。


7. S+ have+ N (difficulty, trouble, a hard time, a good time, fun)+動名詞:表達“某人做‥有困難(或樂趣)”。


例:1. Poor people have a lot of difficulty buying enough to eat.


2. He had a hard time speaking English.

 

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